Thermal Processing of Metal Alloys

11) Thermal Processing of Metal Alloys   Annealing Processes 11.1 Introduction Annealing is a heat treatment where the material is taken to a high temperature, kept there for some time and then cooled. High temperatures allow diffusion processes to occur fast. The time at the high temperature (soaking time) is long enough to allow the…

By Sdbamie 1 May 2020 Off

Phase Transformations in Metals

10) Phase Transformations in Metals 10.1 Introduction The goal is to obtain specific micro structures that will improve the mechanical properties of a metal, in addition to grain-size refinement, solid-solution strengthening, and strain-hardening. 10.2 Basic Concepts Phase transformations that involve a change in the micro structure can occur through: Diffusion Maintaining the type and number…

By Sdbamie 1 May 2020 Off

Environment and Environmental Pollution

17) Give most suitable definitions of “environment” and “environmental pollution”. What is a pollutant as defined by the Government of India in its Environmental Protection Act (1986)? Earth is the only planet where other living beings have evolved because of the availability of all the ingredients such as air, water, food, energy, etc., which are…

By Sdbamie 29 April 2020 Off

Holiday and Rolling Plan

16) What is Holiday and Rolling Plan? Holiday Plan Since the Third five-year Plan had gone away, the process of planning itself became discredited in the eyes of many people. As a result, there were demands from many different quarters to declare a Plan Holiday . Rolling Plan The new pattern of planning was laid…

By Sdbamie 29 April 2020 Off

Planning by direction

15) What is the meaning of “planning by direction” ? The government may also influence the supply and / or demand of various commodities, and thus increase or decrease their production , consumption and price. The first of these methods (issue of orders, imposition of controls, etc.) is known as “ planning by direction” while…

By Sdbamie 29 April 2020 Off

Logic Gate

6) Logic Gate A logic gate performs a logical operation on one or more logic inputs and produces a single logic output. The logic normally performed is Boolean logic and is most commonly found in digital circuits. Logic gates are primarily implemented electronically using diodes or transistors, but can also be constructed using electromagnetic relays,…

By Sdbamie 29 April 2020 Off

Karnaugh Map

5) Karnaugh map The Karnaugh map, also known as a Veitch diagram (K-map or KV-map for short), is a tool to facilitate management of Boolean algebraic expressions. A Karnaugh map is unique in that only one variable changes value between squares, in other words, the rows and columns are ordered according to the principles of…

By Sdbamie 29 April 2020 Off

Internet protocol suite

4) Internet protocol suite The Internet protocol suite is the set of communications protocols that implement the protocol stack on which the Internet and most commercial networks run. It is sometimes called the TCP/IP protocol suite, after the two most important protocols in it: the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) and the Internet Protocol (IP), which…

By Sdbamie 29 April 2020 Off

Network Topology

3) Network Topology In networking, the term “topology” refers to the layout of connected devices on a network. This article introduces the standard topologies of computer networking. Topology in Network Design One can think of a topology as a network’s virtual shape or structure. This shape does not necessarily correspond to the actual physical layout…

By Sdbamie 29 April 2020 Off